Glossary

tapentadol hydrochloride
A drug used to treat moderate to severe pain. It binds to opioid receptors and other molecules in the central nervous system. Tapentadol hydrochloride is a type of opioid and a type of analgesic agent. Also called Nucynta.
Tarceva
A drug used to treat certain types of non-small cell lung cancer. It is also used with gemcitabine hydrochloride to treat pancreatic cancer that cannot be removed by surgery or has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tarceva blocks a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called CP-358,774, erlotinib hydrochloride, and OSI-774.
targeted therapy
A type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific types of cancer cells with less harm to normal cells. Some targeted therapies block the action of certain enzymes, proteins, or other molecules involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells. Other types of targeted therapies help the immune system kill cancer cells or deliver toxic substances directly to cancer cells and kill them. Targeted therapy may have fewer side effects than other types of cancer treatment. Most targeted therapies are either small molecule drugs or monoclonal antibodies.
Targretin
A drug used to treat skin problems caused by cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that have not gotten better after other treatment. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Targretin is a type of retinoid. Also called bexarotene and LGD1069.
tariquidar
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It may help tumor cells respond again to drugs they have become resistant (unable to respond) to. Tariquidar is a type of multidrug resistance inhibitor and a type of P-glycoprotein antagonist. Also called XR9576.
Tarvacin
A substance being studied in the treatment of several types of cancer and infections caused by certain viruses. It binds to substances on the surface of tumor cells, certain viruses, and cells infected with a virus. The immune system detects Tarvacin on the cells and the viruses and may destroy them. It is a type of monoclonal antibody and a type of targeted therapy agent. Also called bavituximab.
Tasigna
A drug used to treat certain types of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It is used in some newly diagnosed patients. It is also used in patients who have not gotten better after treatment with other anticancer drugs or who are not able to take imatinib mesylate. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Tasigna blocks a protein called BCR-ABL, which may help keep cancer cells from growing. It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Also called nilotinib.
taurolidine
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called anti-infectives.
taxane
A type of drug that blocks cell growth by stopping mitosis (cell division). Taxanes interfere with microtubules (cellular structures that help move chromosomes during mitosis). They are used to treat cancer. A taxane is a type of mitotic inhibitor and a type of antimicrotubule agent.
taxoid XRP6258
A drug used with prednisone to treat hormone-resistant prostate cancer that has spread and that had been treated with docetaxel. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Taxoid XRP6258 blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimitotic agent. Also called cabazitaxel and Jevtana.
Taxol
A drug used to treat breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. It is also used together with another drug to treat non-small cell lung cancer. Taxol is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks cell growth by stopping cell division and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimitotic agent. Also called paclitaxel.
Taxotere
A drug used to treat certain types of cancers of the breast, stomach, lung, prostate, and head and neck. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Taxotere kills cancer cells by stopping them from dividing. It is a type of taxane. Also called docetaxel.
tazarotene
A drug used on the skin to treat several skin conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of basal cell skin cancer and basal cell nevus syndrome. Tazarotene is related to vitamin A and is made in the laboratory. It turns on a gene that may help stop the growth of skin cancer cells. Tazarotene is a type of synthetic retinoid. Also called Avage and Tazorac.
Tazorac
A drug used on the skin to treat several skin conditions. It is also being studied in the treatment of basal cell skin cancer and basal cell nevus syndrome. Tazorac is related to vitamin A and is made in the laboratory. It turns on a gene that may help stop the growth of skin cancer cells. Tazorac is a type of synthetic retinoid. Also called Avage and tazarotene.
TB
A disease caused by a specific type of bacteria that spreads from one person to another through the air. TB can affect many parts of the body, but most often affects the lungs. A person may not have symptoms of TB for years, but they may appear when the patient becomes ill with a serious condition like diabetes, AIDS, or cancer. TB can usually be treated and cured with antibiotics. Also called tuberculosis.
Tc 99m sulfur colloid
A substance being studied as a way to find cancer in the body. It is also used to find sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called sulfur colloid. Sulfer colloid is taken up by special cells in lymph tissue, and in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity is used to find where the Tc 99m sulfur colloid is in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc-99m SC and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid.
Tc-99m Dextran
A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have Tc-99m Dextran in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 99m-Tc-Dx and technetium Tc 99m dextran.
Tc-99m SC
A substance being studied as a way to find cancer in the body. It is also used to find sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called sulfur colloid. Sulfer colloid is taken up by special cells in lymph tissue, and in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity is used to find where the Tc-99m SC is in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called Tc 99m sulfur colloid and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid.
TCE
A device used to look at tissues in the esophagus. It is a tiny capsule with a laser scanner inside and a very thin cord attached to it. The patient swallows the capsule and the thin cord helps keep the capsule in a specific area in the esophagus. The cord is also used to remove the capsule. Pictures are taken by the laser scanner and sent to a computer for viewing. A TCE is used to find early cancers of the esophagus and other parts of the body. Also called tethered capsule endoscope.
TCGA
A project to identify the complete set of DNA changes in many different types of cancer. Studying these changes may help researchers understand how different types of cancer form. This may lead to new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer. TCGA is led by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), which are parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Also called The Cancer Genome Atlas.
TCM
A medical system that has been used for thousands of years to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. It is based on the belief that qi (the body's vital energy) flows along meridians (channels) in the body and keeps a person’s spiritual, emotional, mental, and physical health in balance. TCM aims to restore the body’s balance and harmony between the natural opposing forces of yin and yang, which can block qi and cause disease. TCM includes acupuncture, diet, herbal therapy, meditation, physical exercise, and massage. Also called Oriental medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine.
tea tree
A tree that is a member of the myrtle family. Oil from the tea tree is used in shampoos and skin care products and to treat skin infections. It has been used in some cultures to treat other skin conditions, including acne, burns, and insect bites. The scientific name is Melaleuca alternifolia.
technetium Tc 94m sestamibi
A substance being studied in certain cancer-imaging tests using positron emission tomography (PET). It contains a radioactive substance called technetium, bound to another substance called sestamibi, that helps it enter cells. It may help show how well cancer cells take up anticancer drugs. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical.
technetium Tc 99m demobesin-4
A substance being studied as a way to find certain types of cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to another substance called demobesin. Demobesin binds to the receptor for bombesin (a substance that is found at higher-than-normal levels on some types of cancer cells). Technetium Tc 99m demobsin-4 collects in cancer cells and a machine is used to find where the cancer cells are in the body. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent.
technetium Tc 99m dextran
A substance being studied as a way to find sentinel lymph nodes in some types of skin cancer and breast cancer. It contains a radioactive substance called technetium linked to a substance called dextran. Dextran helps technetium stay in blood and lymph vessels after it is injected. A machine or probe that detects radioactivity shows which lymph nodes near the tumor have technetium Tc 99m dextran in them. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical and a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 99m-Tc-Dx and Tc-99m Dextran.
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