Glossary

S-1
A drug that is being studied for its ability to enhance the effectiveness of fluorouracil and prevent gastrointestinal side effects caused by fluorouracil. It belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites.
S-phase fraction
A measure of the percentage of cells in a tumor that are in the phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is synthesized. The S-phase fraction may be used with the proliferative index to give a more complete understanding of how fast a tumor is growing.
S100 calcium binding protein A8
A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin A.
S100 calcium binding protein A9
A protein that is made by many different types of cells and is involved in processes that take place both inside and outside of the cell. It is made in larger amounts in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, and in some types of cancer. It is being studied as a biomarker for breast cancer. Also called calgranulin B.
SAB
A temporary loss of feeling in the abdomen and/or the lower part of the body. Special drugs called anesthetics are injected into the fluid in the lower part of the spinal column to cause the loss of feeling. The patient stays awake during the procedure. It is a type of regional anesthesia. Also called spinal anesthesia, spinal block, and subarachnoid block.
sacrum
The large, triangle-shaped bone in the lower spine that forms part of the pelvis. It is made of 5 fused bones of the spine.
safingol
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called protein kinase inhibitors. Also called L-threo-dihydrosphingosine.
SAHA
A drug that is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that does not get better, gets worse, or comes back during or after treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. SAHA is a type of histone deacetylase inhibitor. Also called suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, vorinostat, and Zolinza.
saline
A solution of salt and water.
saliva
The watery fluid in the mouth made by the salivary glands. Saliva moistens food to help digestion and it helps protect the mouth against infections.
salivary gland
A gland in the mouth that produces saliva.
salivary gland cancer
A rare cancer that forms in tissues of a salivary gland (gland in the mouth that makes saliva). Most salivary gland cancers occur in older people.
salpingo-oophorectomy
Surgical removal of the fallopian tubes and ovaries.
salvage therapy
Treatment that is given after the cancer has not responded to other treatments.
samarium 153
A radioactive substance used in the treatment of bone cancer and bone metastases (cancers that have spread from the original tumor to the bone). Samarium 153 is a radioactive form of the element samarium. It collects in bone, where it releases radiation that may kill cancer cells. It is a type of radioisotope.
samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium
A drug used to treat pain caused by bone cancer and other cancers that have spread to the bones. Samarium Sm 153 lexidronam pentasodium is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called Quadramet.
saponin
A substance found in soybeans and many other plants. Saponins may help lower cholesterol and may have anticancer effects.
saquinavir mesylate
A drug that belongs to the family of drugs called protease inhibitors. It interferes with the ability of a virus to make copies of itself.
sarCNU
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called sarcosinamide nitrosourea.
sarcoid
An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoid may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoidosis.
sarcoidosis
An inflammatory disease marked by the formation of granulomas (small nodules of immune cells) in the lungs, lymph nodes, and other organs. Sarcoidosis may be acute and go away by itself, or it may be chronic and progressive. Also called sarcoid.
sarcoma
A cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue.
sarcomatoid carcinoma
A type of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs and that contains long spindle-shaped cells. Also called spindle cell cancer.
sarcosinamide nitrosourea
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of alkylating agent. Also called sarCNU.
sargramostim
A substance that helps make more white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets. It is a cytokine that is a type of hematopoietic (blood-forming) agent. Also called GM-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
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