Glossary

1-(2’-deoxy-2’-fluoro-ß-D-arabinofuranosyl) uracil
A substance being studied in the treatment of advanced solid tumors and lymphomas. It blocks the growth of cells and may cause cancer cells to die. It is a type of uracil analog. Also called FAU.
1-methyl-d-tryptophan
A substance being studied in the treatment of melanoma and many other types of cancer. 1-methyl-d-tryptophan blocks the breakdown of the amino acid tryptophan, which is needed for T cells (a type of immune system cell) to kill tumor cells. Giving 1-methyl-d-tryptophan to patients who have received chemotherapy for cancer may help kill more tumor cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor and immunosuppressant. Also called D-1MT.
10-propargyl-10-deazaaminopterin
A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called folate analogs.
11C topotecan
A substance being studied in the treatment of certain types of cancer, including ovarian cancer and lung cancer. 11C topotecan is a radioactive form of the anticancer drug topotecan. It builds up in tumor tissues and is detected by positron emission tomography (PET). It may be used to help determine whether treatment with topotecan will work. It is a type of topoisomerase I inhibitor.
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
A substance being studied in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate affects many cell actions and may cause tumor cells to die. It is a type of phorbol ester. Also called tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and TPA.
126–F
A liquid that has been promoted as a treatment for a wide range of diseases, including cancer. The ingredients thought to be in 126–F have been tested, and none of them have been shown to be effective in treating any form of cancer. 126–F is not available in the United States. Also called Cancell, Cantron, Jim’s Juice, JS–101, JS–114, Protocel, and Sheridan’s Formula.
13-cis retinoic acid
A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid. Also called isotretinoin.
131I-MIBG
A radioactive substance that is used in imaging tests, and is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called iodine I 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine.
1572 form
A form that must be filed by an investigator running a clinical trial to study a new drug or agent. The investigator agrees to follow the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Code of Federal Regulations for the clinical trial. The investigator verifies that he or she has the experience and background needed to conduct the trial and that it will be done in a way that is ethical and scientifically sound. Also called Form FDA 1572-Statement of Investigator.
17-AAG
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-AAG helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and tanespimycin.
17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin
17-DMAG. A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called geldanamycin analogs.
17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made from an antibiotic called geldanamycin. 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin helps cause the breakdown of certain proteins in the cell, and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antineoplastic antibiotic and a type of HSP90 inhibitor. Also called 17-AAG and tanespimycin.
18F-choline
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-choline gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-choline. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromethylcholine, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.
18F-EF5
A substance that is being studied in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to detect tumor hypoxia (a low level of oxygen in the tumor).This may help predict how the tumor will respond to treatment. It belongs to the family of drugs called radiopharmaceuticals. Also called fluorine F 18 EF5.
18F-FLT
A radioactive substance being studied in the diagnosis of cancer. 18F-FLT is injected into the blood and builds up in cells that are dividing, including cancer cells. The radiation that it gives off as it decays (breaks down) helps make clear pictures of tumors during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is a type of radiopharmaceutical. Also called 3’-deoxy-3’-(18F) fluorothymidine and fluorothymidine F 18.
18F-fluoromethylcholine
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-fluoromethylcholine gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-fluoromethylcholine. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-FMCH, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.
18F-fluoromisonidazole
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-fluoromisonidazole is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-fluoromisonidazole in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-fluoromisonidazole is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-MISO and FMISO.
18F-FMCH
A radioactive substance being studied in PET imaging to detect certain types of cancer. 18F-FMCH gets taken up by cells in the body and more of it is taken up by tumor cells than by normal cells. A PET scanner is used to detect which cells in the body have taken up 18F-FMCH. It is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-choline, 18F-fluoromethylcholine, and fluorine F 18 fluoromethylcholine.
18F-MISO
A radioactive substance being studied as an imaging agent in head and neck cancers and other types of cancer. It binds to large molecules in tumor cells that have a low level of oxygen. Radiation given off by 18F-MISO is detected by a PET scan. The amount of 18F-MISO in the tumor may help decide the best treatment and help predict whether the cancer will come back after treatment. 18F-MISO is a type of radioimaging agent. Also called 18F-fluoromisonidazole and FMISO.
1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging
A noninvasive imaging method that provides information about cellular activity (metabolic information). It is used along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which provides information about the shape and size of the tumor (spatial information). Also called magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, MRSI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.
2-methoxyestradiol
2ME2. A drug that prevents the formation of new blood vessels that tumors need in order to grow. It is derived from estrogen and belongs to the family of drugs called angiogenesis inhibitors.
2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. It is made by linking a monoclonal antibody called 170, which binds to a protein called MUC-1, to a substance called 2IT-BAD, which binds radioactive substances. 2IT-BAD monoclonal antibody 170 may be used to detect cancer cells and kill them. It is a type of immunoconjugate.
3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla MRI and 3T MRI.
3 Tesla MRI
A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between normal and abnormal tissue. 3 Tesla MRI has a stronger magnet and makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other types of MRI do. It is used to make images of the brain, the spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones and blood vessels. Also called 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and 3T MRI.
3,4-benzpyrene
A chemical that comes from certain substances when they are not burned completely. It is found in car exhaust, smoke from wood fires, tobacco, oil and gas products, charred or grilled foods, and other sources. It may also be found in water and soil. 3,4-Benzpyrene can cause a skin rash, a burning feeling, skin color changes, warts, and bronchitis. It may also cause cancer. It is a type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Also called benzo(a)pyrene.
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